By Sayyid Miqdad Jamalullali, Calicut, Word For Peace
Sayyid Ahmed bin Easa (r) is the first Sayyid who came to Hadarmauth from Madeena. Sayyid Ahmed bin Easa was the son of Easannaqeebi, who helped to make crucial progress and development of knowledge economy of Bagdad and Basra, after the political crisis of Umayyad period.
Major purpose of his travel to Hadarmauth was mainly to focus on the propagation of Sufi thoughts instead of monitory gain.
They settled in Hadarmauth at the period of Sayyid Ali Al-Qassami, the 4th son of Sayyid Ahmed bin Easa. Sayyid Ahmed bin Easa is buried at al-husaisa.
Sayyid Ali Al-Qassam made a city in Qassam, a native place of Thareem and built a Masjid, banee alawi, which was a reflection of the endeavor of Sayyid Ali Al-Qassams prophetic family who dared to travel to Yemen and chose Thareem as a spot for residence.
Hadarmis common habit was travelling from place to place with a view to acquiring knowledge, engaging in systemic Islamic propagation to the ignorant people, visiting piety people for receiving certificate of excellence for the godly achievements.
In 16th century, prophetic family came to India from Hadarmauth through Indian Ocean. Andre Wink says in his book Al-Hind; the making of the Indo-Islamic world Hadrameas started to come to different parts of India massively in early 16th century (winky; 1991). As per the strong objections among the historians about the first arrival of Hadarmi Sadat, Saayyid Sheikh Bin Abdullahil Haidrouse is the first one. He belongs to the 5th generation of Sayyid Abdurahman Assaqaf. He was born in Thareem in 1513 AD. He came to Gujarat in 1551 AD.
During the Mughal Empire, Haji Begum, widow of the late emperor Humayun, went to hajj. From there, she brought some Hadarmi Sadaat to India for reciting Quran at her beloved Husbands Grave.
Perhaps, the first Hadarmi Syid who reached Kerala is Sayyid Jalaludheen Muhammad Al wahdi. He is properly known as seedi koya thangal among the local people. He was born in Tahrim at 1080 AH. He came to Calicut at 1113 AH and then moved to Quilandy, a sea port near to Calicut. He was a renowned Sufi saint of the region and many people from Tahrim and other parts of kerala came to quilandy to visit him for getting spiritual blessings.
Before the coming of Hadarmi Sadaat to kerala bukhari Sadaat settled here. Their passage abound with the central to north India and from north India to Kerala instead of Hadarmi and bukhari Sadaat there are several other groups in kerala. They are hydroos, Jifri, jamalullaily, shihabudheen, mouadaweela, ba fakeeh, ba Alavi, ahdal, aydeed, wahth, ba Hassan, qareed, haddad etc it has been opined that In kerala there were about 40 different Sayyid families.
L.R.S Laxmi says in her Malabar Muslim a different perspective: the aim of Hadarmi for their Diaspora to Malabar was perhaps trading and propagation or both together. The modern Islamic studies of Malabar Muslim traced the Hadarmi intellectual tradition. The Hadarmi Sadaat preserved Islam in Malabar from wrong ideas. They showed the pure Sufi-Shafi Islamic order.
According to various perspectives, the Hadarmi Sadaat in india, Africa and the malayi archipelago are the noble descendents of prophet (pbuh), being received with reverence and received the hands of princess to marriage, then became the leaders in the regions.
The Hadarmi Sadaat wrote number of books on the Sufism and jurisprudence as well as bukhari Sadaat . The Sadaat dedicated many books from hadith (prophetic wond), Thafseer (Quranic exegesis),ausab, Islamic jurisprudence and astronomy. The Saayid Sheikh Ahmad bin Hassan Fakhrul wujood who lived in veliyankode in india wrote a book on Sufism which is named Rafeeul Qadar and also the books of mamburam Sadaat s in india which named saiful bathar and uddathul umrah are the few notable examples of the Hadarmis intellectual dedication to Indian Islamic history.
Variety of intellectual engagements of Hadarmi Sadaat mainly concerned themselves with the Sufism, and it depicts their sheer knowledge of the Sufism.
Due to the arrival of Hadarmi to kerala the Sufi order which was known as Alavi thareekath was started to flourish all around the south india particularly. Reason of this is the widespread was the extended popularity of Sayyid Alavi, Sayyid Jifri among the common major people, Due to their deep pious life.
A Brief Examination About Hadarmi Sadaat
A brief examination about Hadarmi Sadaat and their influence in kerala mainly centered through theie great Sufi leader Sayyid Alavi of mamburam who properly, known as Mamburam Thangal.
He was among the progeny of Sayyid Alavi bin Abdullah, who lived in fourth decade of hijra in hadramout at samal. Sayyid Alavi born in AH 1166 as the son of Sayyid Muhammad bin Sahal and Sayyid ath fathima Jifri. He missed his parents in his childhood itself. He memorized Quran when he was eight year old, his primary education was from his hometown, Tahrim. When he was 16 year old, he travelled from Megalla port to Malabar. He reached Calicut at Ah 1183, and went to Sayyid Jifris house. Initially, he stayed in Jifris house only one day and next day Sayyid Jifri bring Sayyid Alavi to mamburam and Sayyid Alavi became the spiritual leader of muslims particular and other common generally in Malabar.
There was a grave of Sheikh Haassan Jifri, he was the uncle Sayyid Alavi, Sayyid Alavi married Sayyid hasan jifirs daughter Fathima. After the death of his wife Fathima he again married the daughter of Sayyid aboobacker madani Fathima from quilandy. These couples give birth for Sayyid fazal pokoya thangal, who actively involved in Islamic propagation and social service in Malabar and other parts of the world.
The umar Qazi who was lived in Veliyankode, Kerala was one of the most renowned students of Sayyid Alavi. Under the guidance of Sayyid Alavi, the propagation of Islam spread and different regions of south India, known as quthubu zzaman (Saint of century).
He suggested spiritual treatment for his disciple and to infidel there who consulted him to cure many problems. He was been consulted for personal issues as well as social and was considered as greatest Sufi leader later on. There was a huge crowd of follower for this prodigy.
Holy presents of Sayyid Alavi were helped Malabar people to develop their social awareness and the spiritual strength. They understood about Sayyid Alavi he was one of the saints of Allah he also showed many miracles to the followers which he acquired from very duce pious godly relation.
They pursued the Sufi order of Sayyid Alavi. When the Mappilas attacked Britishers through the inspiration of Sayyid Alavi mamburam. He provided military practice with gun and sophisticated weapons. Ensuring a new extend ware form.
Major struggles under Sayyid Alavi:
- Eranad Struggle (November 20-1836)
- Eranad Struggle (April 15- 1837)
- Paruthan struggle(April 19)
- Cheroor struggle
Before the coming of Sayyid Alavi the Islam was contracted in the sea shore but after the arrival of Sayyid Alavi especially and other Hadarmi Sadaat later, Islam spread at different part of the region. The historians saying that the major reason for this extraction was the well attracting good habit of the Muslims and cultured life as well as the godly miracle is influenced the people for converting to Islam.
The renowned Mappila historian DR. M Gangadharan says that in his The study of Mappila on the 17th and 18th decade, the village muslims were formed. Those days many depressed classes were received Islam as the religion. It indicates that at the period of Sayyid Alavi the populations of the Muslims were increasing highly. According to revenue officer report at 1801 the Muslims population was 170113 but the beginning of 1851 the Muslim population increased to 382330 (Moin Hudavi And Mahmood Panagangara).
Sayyid Alavi appointed his companions to the village of Malabar and he built many masjids. The historians counted that more than hundreds masjids are related with Sayyid Alavi in Malabar region. In this masjids Sayyid Alavi mamburam appointed companions as the leader like Sayyid abdulrahman ahdal to payyanad Masjid and Sayyid hussain Jifri to kodinji Masjid. Sayyid Alavis son Sayyid fazal pookooya thangal also built masjids.
The period of Sayyid Alavi were caused for spreading of pure Islam. In nutshell, the Hadarmi Sadaat dedicated their own life to Islamic propagation. So the people cant get anything without Islam. The life of Sayyid Alavi was according to shafi jurisprudence of Islam. And also he was brilliant scholar in Sufism and fiqh. So any doubt existed among the people he will clear those problems with the people.
All historians who study about the Diaspora of Sadaat s they also observed that the reason for the good reception of Sadaat was they got repentance with godly miracle and his blessed pious life.
Mamburam Sayyid Alavi thangal also got the public support, especially from the community of the Hindu of Malabar. They found their peace under the shadow of Sayyid Alavi. They gifted to him there cultivation goods. It was the time of land lord tenant relation system around Malabar, so Sayyid Alavi says no against the brutal system of approach toward the land owner.
There was a book of Sayyid Alavi saiful bathar which was the fathwa against British. The British thought a exile against Sayyid Alavi for his helps to Mappilas in 1801 and 1870, which was the year of Mappila raid but they go back from their decision by the frightened of their riot.